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世行行长金墉在乔治·华盛顿大学演讲

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The World Bank Group Strategy: A Path to End Poverty

世界银行集团的战略:终结贫困之路

--Speech at George Washington University

在乔治•华盛顿大学的演讲

World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim

世界银行集团行长金墉

October 1, 2013

2013年10月1日

President Knapp, Dean Brown, distinguished faculty, students, and guests,

史蒂文·纳普校长、布朗院长、尊敬的各位老师、同学们、各位来宾:

Thank you for hosting me here today. It is a privilege to be with you to talk about the challenges before us in the world – and how the World Bank Group is working to become as effective as possible in improving the lives of the poor and vulnerable.

感谢各位今天的接待。我很荣幸来到这里,谈一谈我们在世界上面临的挑战,以及世界银行集团如何竭尽全力有效地改善贫困和弱势人群的生活。

When we look across the world today and think about the most pressing issues, the ongoing fiscal uncertainty in the United States greatly concerns us. Our hope is that policymakers resolve these issues soon. This uncertainty, combined with other sources of volatility in the global economy, could do great damage to emerging markets and developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that have lifted millions of people out of poverty in recent years.

今天,当我们纵观世界、思考最重要的议题时,围绕美国财政形势的不确定性让我们非常关注。我们希望政策制订者们能够尽快解决这个问题。非洲、亚洲、拉丁美洲的新兴市场和发展中国家近年有千百万人摆脱了贫困,但美国财政形势的不确定性以及导致全球经济波动的其他一些因素可能给它们带来损害。

We also can’t help but focus on the upheaval that is taking place in the Middle East. Syria is now in its 30th month of war and the toll has been horrific. More than 100,000 people have been killed, 4 million people have been displaced and another 2 million Syrians have fled and become refugees in neighboring countries, adding great burdens to Jordan and Lebanon in particular. The fighting continues within Syria, and the impact of broken lives and broken economies only grows by the day.

我们也无法不关注中东正在发生的动乱。叙利亚目前已进入战争的第30个月,造成的伤亡损失令人惊惧。在战乱中10多万人被杀,400万人流离失所,还有200万叙利亚人逃离家园,成为邻国的难民,尤其是给约旦和黎巴嫩带来了沉重的负担。叙利亚境内战乱还在继续,对生活和经济造成的破坏日甚一日。

We should not avert our gaze from the Middle East. The World Bank Group has been playing several roles. At times, we are in the backrooms with diplomats and at others we are on the frontlines with humanitarian aid workers. Always, we are working with governments, or companies, or civil society groups to help build strong and sustainable foundations for development. This supports the livelihoods of millions of people in the Middle East, and billions more around the world, who aspire to good jobs, a good education, and access to quality health care.

我们不应对中东局势视而不见。世界银行集团中东发挥着多种作用。有时候,我们同外交官和其他人商谈于密室,有时候我们同人道主义援助人员战斗在前线。我们总是在和政府、或者和企业、或者和民间团体协力合作,为发展事业建造牢固和可持续的基础。这些工作支持着中东千百万人民乃至全世界数十亿人的生计——他们都希望有良好的工作、良好的教育和优质的医疗保健。

A critical part of our work is in countries emerging from conflict, affected by conflict, or stuck in a persistent state of fragility. As we know all too well, when a country remains in a long state of fragility, conflict often erupts. The World Bank Group and the wider global community need to confront the complex institutional and social challenges in these fragile states, because the cost of inaction is high and the reward of well-designed interventions is great. When we have the opportunity to build institutions, infrastructure, and human capacity in fragile states, or when we can put together a deal that brings in desperately needed private sector investment, we must seize it. When we fail to help countries develop in a way that is inclusive or fail to help countries build strong governance, we are all affected by the result, which is often a country engulfed in flames, as is Syria today.

我们工作中非常重要的一部分是在刚结束冲突、受冲突影响或者长期陷于脆弱状况的国家。众所周知,当一个国家长期处于脆弱状况时,冲突往往一触即发。世界银行集团乃至国际社会需要在这些脆弱国家直面复杂的制度和社会挑战,原因是无所事事的代价高昂,而设计周密的干预措施则收效巨大。当我们有机会在脆弱国家进行制度、基础设施和能力建设时,或者当我们能够达成一项协议引进急需的私营部门投资时,我们必须抓住机遇。当我们未能帮助国家实现包容性发展时,或者未能帮助国家建立强有力的治理结构时,其后果会影响所有人——往往是一个国家陷入战火,就像今天的叙利亚。

Drivers of conflict

冲突的驱动因素

In the Middle East, most of the countries experienced relatively strong growth of 4 to 5 percent a year in the decade before the Arab Spring. Yet serious problems were lurking below the surface. An increasingly educated young middle class was frustrated that the few available jobs were reserved for those with more connections than talent. The private sector operated by earning privileges from the state, leading to a form of crony capitalism that only helped a few, and undermined exports and jobs.

在中东,大多数国家在阿拉伯之春之前的10年都经历过4%或5%的相对强劲增长。然而,外表下隐藏着严重的问题。年轻的中间阶层受教育程度越来越高,令他们沮丧的是稀少的就业机会都留给了那些有关系而不是有才能的人。私营部门的运作要依靠政府提供的特权,形成一种只有利于少数人的裙带资本主义,对出口和就业造成破坏。

The inequities – and the anger – filtered even to the very young. When a million people poured into Tahrir Square in Cairo in 2011 to protest their government, the children of the protesters held protests of their own in classrooms. They demanded better instruction. This is what happens when prosperity is reserved for a select few. All of those left out feel deeply, the burn of inequity.

不平等和愤怒甚至渗透到少年儿童中。2011年当100万人涌入开罗的解放广场抗议政府的时候,抗议者的孩子们也在他们自己的教室举行抗议活动。他们要求改进教学。当繁荣有选择地保留给少数人,这就是结果。所有那些被遗漏的人都深感到不公平的伤害。

The ongoing crises have left many Middle Eastern countries with a triple challenge. First is restoring macroeconomic stability; second is reforming their economies to meet the high expectations of the people who marched in the streets; and third is managing the transition to new constitutions and more open, contested, multiparty elections. These challenges would be daunting for any single country. But they have all come together in one region. That makes it all the more important for the international community to marshal its resources to support those brave women and men who risked their lives to demand the basic human dignity that is their due.

目前的危机令众多中东国家面临三重挑战。第一是恢复宏观经济稳定;第二是改革经济以满足上街抗议的人民的期望;第三是管理好向新宪法和更公开的、有争议的、多党制的选举过渡。这些挑战对于任何一个国家都是巨大的,但三重挑战同时降临一个地区,就使得国际社会集结资源来援助这些冒着生命危险要求得到应得的基本人类尊严的勇敢男女们显得愈发重要。

That also makes it important to come to the aid of Jordan and Lebanon today. The World Bank provided $150 million in emergency aid to Jordan just a few months ago, and we just completed a comprehensive economic and social impact assessment of Lebanon that found the country has lost billions of dollars due to the war in Syria.

这也使得今天对约旦和黎巴嫩伸出援助之手十分重要。世界银行几个月前向约旦提供了1.5亿美元的紧急援助,我们也刚刚完成了对黎巴嫩的全面的经济和社会影响评估,发现叙利亚内战导致黎巴嫩损失了数十亿美元。

Lebanon now hosts more than 760,000 Syrian refugees, which could be likened to 56 million refugees entering the United States, 45 million of which would have entered since this January alone. Think of the disruption. Last week, I attended the UN General Assembly meeting of the International Support Group for Lebanon. Donors pledged some funds for the country, but we need to do much more or we risk catastrophe in Lebanon.

黎巴嫩目前接待了超过76万叙利亚难民,按人口比例来说,这相当于美国涌入5600万难民,而且仅仅从今年1月以后来到的就有 4500万人。想想这会带来什么样的混乱。上周,我们出席了联合国大会的黎巴嫩国际援助小组会议。各援助方承诺为黎巴嫩提供一些资金,但我们还需要做得更多,否则黎巴嫩可能会发生巨大的灾难。

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