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劳资纠纷频生 阻碍印度崛起

来源:天星 更新日期:2009-11-24 点击:

图为汽车配件厂Pricol的工人们。因长期劳资纠纷而愤懑不已的工人杀死了工厂的人力资源经理。

古老的印度城市哥印拜陀近年来已转变为推动印度经济复兴的制造业活力的象征。但该市一间汽车零件厂发生的杀人案引发担忧:印度的工业奇迹是否遭遇行业动荡的掣肘。

This ancient city has turned itself in recent years into a manufacturing dynamo emblematic of India's economic rebirth. But a homicide case playing out in an auto-parts factory here is raising concerns about whether the Indian industrial miracle is hitting a wall of industrial unrest.

今年9月底,为丰田汽车(Toyota Motor Corp.)和通用汽车(General Motors Corp.)等厂商生产仪表板的Pricol Ltd.陷入混乱,工人们冲进负责人力资源的46岁老板乔治(Roy George)的办公室。目击者说,工人们对薪水冻结愤怒不已,带着铁棍冲了进去,致使乔治倒在血泊中。律师说,警方逮捕了50名与乔治之死有关的工会成员。这些人尚未被指控。

Pricol Ltd., which makes instrument panels for the likes of Toyota Motor Corp. and General Motors Corp., was rocked in late September when workers burst into the office of Roy George, its 46-year-old human-resources boss. Angry over a wage freeze, they carried iron rods, witnesses say, and left Mr. George in a pool of blood. Police arrested 50 union members in connection with his death, their lawyer says. Charges haven't been filed.

印度各地劳工问题冲突不断。由于全球经济低迷,工厂管理人员希望削减劳动力成本,裁撤不听话的工人。工会则试图加以阻止,组织怠工和罢工,有时导致流血事件。

Battle lines are being drawn in labor actions across India. Factory managers, amid the global economic downturn, want to pare labor costs and remove defiant workers. Unions are attempting to stop them, with slowdowns and strikes that have led at times to bloodshed.

工人们的不满引发了此类争端,许多工人觉得自己没能享受到过去十年经济繁荣的好处C公司方面说,劳工领袖激发了工人的强烈情绪,这些领袖希望增加自己工会的成员,以及为左倾政党争取选票。印度几十年未经修订的劳动法也加剧了紧张形势,劳资双方都认为劳动法需要改革。

The disputes are fueled by the discontent of workers, many of whom say they haven't partaken of the past decade's prosperity. Their passions are being whipped up, companies say, by labor leaders who want to add members to their unions and win votes for left-leaning political parties. Adding to the tensions are the country's decades-old labor codes, which workers and companies alike say require an overhaul.

印度汽车零部件制造商协会(Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India)主席Jayant Davar说,一个有着社会主义劳动法的资本主义国家是行不通的。

'We can't be a capitalist country that has socialist labor laws,' says Jayant Davar, president of the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India.

这种混乱状态提醒人们,印度要与世界其他经济强国比肩还有很长的路要走。由于中产阶级不断扩充,农村消费者群体也不断增加,印度过去5年平均经济增幅达8%,被视为可帮助领导全球经济复苏的国家。

The unrest serves as a reminder that India has far to go before it stands alongside the world's other economic powerhouses. With its widening middle class and growing base of rural consumers, India has averaged more than 8% growth for the last half-decade. It is seen as a country that can help lead a global economic recovery.

但首先,印度必须展现出无论经济盛衰都可安然度过。印度制造业过去16年每年增长7%左右,然而截至今年3月份的12个月增幅仅2.4%。这种情况迫使制造厂商采取了一些不得人心的缩减成本举措,引发了劳工行动,而这又反过来导致生产更为迟缓,抵制了增长。

But first, it must show it can ride out booms and slowdowns alike. The country's manufacturing sector, after growing about 7% annually for the past 16 years, logged 2.4% growth in the 12 months that ended in March. That has pressed manufacturers to make some unpopular cutbacks -- spurring labor actions that have slowed production further and suppressed growth.

印度劳工部称,2008年,印度制造和服务公司的罢工事件较上年增加48%。今年,众多制造厂商受到劳工行动冲击,从印度汽车厂商Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.到芬兰的诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)以及瑞士食品巨头雀巢(Nestle SA)概莫能外。

Strikes at India's manufacturing and service companies rose 48% in 2008 from the year before, India's Ministry of Labor says. This year, labor actions have hit manufacturers from Indian automaker Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. to Finland's Nokia Corp. and Swiss food giant Nestle SA.

韩国现代汽车公司(Hyundai Motor Co.)一家印度子公司的工人们在今年4月和7月举行静坐示威,要求认可一个外部工会,并让遭解职的员工复职。一份法庭文件显示,9月,日本本田汽车(Honda Motor Co.)一家子公司的工人用减震器和汽车车架部件威胁工程师及管理人员,阻挠一条新生产线的试运行。

Workers at a unit of Korea's Hyundai Motor Co. staged sit-ins in April and July, demanding recognition of an outside union and reinstatement of suspended workers. In September, workers at a unit of Japan's Honda Motor Co. tried to prevent a trial of a new assembly line by threatening engineers and executives with shock-absorbers and auto-frame pieces, according to a court documents.

一些对抗出现恶劣后果。去年,瑞士高科技集团OC Oerlikon Corp.旗下制造子公司Graziano Trasmissioni India Pvt. Ltd.的首席执行长被新德里外一个工厂的停职工人殴打致死。

Some confrontations have turned vicious. Last year, the chief executive of Graziano Trasmissioni India Pvt. Ltd., a manufacturing unit of Swiss high-tech group OC Oerlikon Corp., was beaten to death by workers who had been suspended at a plant outside New Delhi.

此类事件对全球都造成了影响。印度供应商Rico Auto Industries Ltd.的工人9月底举行罢工,导致福特汽车(Ford Motor Co.)的变速器部件断货,其生产Edge运动型多用途车(SUV)的安大略工厂以及生产Taurus轿车的芝加哥工厂被迫暂时停产。Rico的罢工持续六周,导致通用汽车位于密歇根州的一家SUV生产厂停产一周,接下来的一周也减少了一个班次。知情人士说,通用汽车位于密歇根州沃伦的变速器生产厂也削减了一个班次。

The impact has been global. A strike that started in late September at Indian supplier Rico Auto Industries Ltd. left Ford Motor Co. without transmission parts, forcing it to halt production temporarily at an Ontario plant that makes Edge sport-utility vehicles and at a Chicago plant that builds Taurus sedans. The six-week Rico strike spurred GM to idle an SUV-production facility in Delta Township, Mich., for a week and cut one shift for a second week. GM also cut a shift at a transmission factory in Warren, Mich., said a person familiar with the matter.

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