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来源:天星 更新日期:2010-01-03 点击:



Chinese entrepreneurs and private citizens are starting to become more active in trying to address concerns over global warming, a nascent trend that could have significant long-term impact on the ability of the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitter to curb its effects on the climate.


The shift is most pronounced among a small-but-growing group of private business executives, who are adjusting their business practices and helping to spread awareness more broadly among the public.

中国最大房地产开发商万科企业股份有限公司(China Vanke Co.)58岁的董事长王石表示,1998年喜欢上登山运动后,他开始对全球变暖产生担忧。他读过海明威(Ernest Hemingway)的小说《乞力马扎罗的雪》(The Snows of Kilimanjaro),于是在2002年前往坦桑尼亚攀登小说中所说的山峰。那次的见闻令他震惊。

Wang Shi, the 58-year-old chairman of China Vanke Co., the country's largest housing developer, said he became concerned about global warming through mountain climbing, a hobby he took up in 1998. He had read the Ernest Hemingway story 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro,' and in 2002 went to Tanzania to scale the mountain in the title. He was surprised at what he found.


'I didn't see any snow,' he says. 'I did more research, and discovered that within 50 years . . . its glaciers could be entirely gone as well.'


Mr. Wang is gradually replacing wood used in the interiors of Vanke's apartment buildings with recyclable materials. Vanke is using more solar and other renewable energy, and adopting prefabrication techniques, borrowed partly from Japan, that are less wasteful than standard Chinese construction.

王石正在深圳修建新的公司总部大楼,由美国建筑设计师霍尔(Steven Holl)设计。他要让大楼成为中国第一幢获得国际“能源与环境设计先锋奖”(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)最高级别白金奖的大楼。这个奖项是一个针对“绿色建筑”的评级体系。

Mr. Wang is building a new corporate headquarters in Shenzhen designed by Steven Holl, an American architect, that he aims to make the first building in China with a platinum ranking -- the highest available -- on the international Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system for 'green buildings.'


Mr. Wang is building a new corporate headquarters in Shenzhen designed by Steven Holl, an American architect, that he aims to make the first building in China with a platinum ranking -- the highest available -- on the international Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system for 'green buildings.'

2004年,王石和另外大约60位企业家组建了阿拉善SEE生态协会(Society of Entrepreneurs and Ecology,简称SEE),目的是促进应对气候变化和其他环境问题的意识和行动。目前这个协会有160名会员,每位会员年费人民币10万元(合14,620美元)。这意味着每年预算至少230万美元,还不包括房租全免等其他捐助。这对一家中国的非政府组织来讲,是一个庞大的数目。

In 2004, Vanke's Mr. Wang and about 60 other businessmen founded the Society of Entrepreneurs and Ecology to promote awareness and action on climate change and other environmental issues. It now has 160 members, each of whom pays 100,000 yuan ($14,620) in annual dues. That means an annual budget of at least $2.3 million, not including other contributions like free rent -- a hefty sum for a Chinese NGO.


SEE uses the funds for reforestation programs in China and educational efforts, and to help support more than 150 smaller environmental groups around the country.


On Dec. 8, at the beginning of the Copenhagen climate summit, the group joined several other organizations representing 200 business members to issue a communique pledging to reduce their companies' emissions and calling on governments to reach a deal including binding legal benchmarks.


Yang Peng, SEE's secretary-general, says the growing green consciousness is a natural outgrowth of China's development.


'In the past, people just wanted to get enough to eat. Now, many people live in nicer homes, and they're more concerned about the environment,' he says. 'Low carbon is a new idea, but it's spreading very fast.'


Most of the focus in assessing China's climate-related practices has been on the government. That is logical, since Beijing, in addition to setting policy, plays an enormous direct role in the economy. The government has pledged to reduce China's carbon emissions relative to the size of its economy, but has refused to commit to outright emissions cuts. Some foreign officials and scientists have criticized China's stance and said it contributed to the failure of the Copenhagen summit to reach a breakthrough. China says it played a constructive role at the summit, but can only agree to a deal that treats developing nations fairly.


But the participation of private businesses and regular citizens in the world's most populous nation will also be a major factor in China's climate impact.


Until recently, there was little of the sort of nongovernmental activity on climate change and other environmental issues that is common in more-developed places like Europe, Japan and the U.S. Now, climate experts take heart in the increasing activities of some executives, educators and others -- even if it is too early for them to have had major impact, and abundant examples remain of indifference and waste.

总部位于纽约的环境组织自然资源保护委员会(Natural Resources Defense Council)中国项目主任费雯丽(Barbara Finamore)说,我们已经开始看到中国人对气候变化的认识程度越来越高。她强调,学校和官方媒体采取了教育措施,让人们意识到气候问题,同时一些具有前瞻性的公司认识到这一问题之重要性并带头力劝政府加大努力。

'We are starting to see a growing level of awareness of climate change among people' in China, says Barbara Finamore, China program director for the Natural Resources Defense Council, a New York-based environmental organization. Ms. Finamore points to educational efforts in schools and by the state media to make people aware of climate issues, as well as 'forward-looking companies who recognize the importance of this issue and are taking a leading role in trying to encourage their government to do more.'

一些经理人正在改变他们的个人行为和公司行为。远大空调有限公司(Broad Air Conditioner Co.)总裁张跃早在1997年就成为首批购置个人飞机的中国企业家之一。大约五年前,他意识到了飞机一次1,900英里的航程会产生数量极巨的二氧化碳。自此以后,他严格限制飞机的使用,并经常乘坐民航班机。

Some executives are changing their personal, as well as corporate, behavior. Zhang Yue, chairman of Broad Air Conditioner Co., was one of China's first entrepreneurs to buy a private jet, back in 1997. About five years ago, he became aware of the huge volume of carbon dioxide produced by a single 1,900-mile trip on the jet. Since then, he has heavily restricted the jet's use, and he often takes commercial flights.


Mr. Zhang has also made emissions reduction a central mission of his company. Broad is a major producer of giant air conditioners used in buildings, and it specializes in chillers that don't use electricity, instead relying on other energy sources like natural gas and waste heat. Broad says its air conditioners have only 20% the carbon-dioxide emissions of electric models.


Still, Mr. Zhang, who considers himself a pioneer on climate-change issues in China, is pessimistic about the overall level of awareness in the country.


'Public understanding of energy conservation and emissions reduction is still woefully behind,' he says, adding that more education and publicity of the issue by the government is needed.

其他人已经看到了进步。皇明太阳能集团有限公司(Himin Solar Energy Group Co.) 是中国屋顶太阳能热水器的最大生产商,其董事长黄鸣表示,一些客户、特别是文化程度比较高的城市居民希望使用对环境更加有利的设备,这一点正在帮助提高皇明的销量。

Others see progress already. Huang Ming, the chairman of Himin Solar Energy Group Co., China's largest maker of rooftop solar water heaters, says the desire among some of his customers, particularly educated, urban residents, to use more-environmentally friendly devices is helping to boost Himin's sales.

如果万科这样的房地产公司改变它们的行为,影响可能会特别巨大,因为按建筑面积计算,中国拥有世界上最大的建筑市场。据一家企业团体发布的《中国绿色科技报告2009》(China Greentech Report 2009),建筑活动所产生的碳排放约占中国排放总量的六分之一。

If property companies like Vanke change their behavior, it could have an especially strong impact, since China has the largest building market in the world by floor space. Building operations create about one-sixth of China's total carbon emissions, according to the China Greentech Report 2009, published by a business consortium.

自然资源保护委员会和波士顿咨询公司(Boston Consulting Group)10月份发布的另一份报告估计,即使只对中国建筑“稍作节能改造”,影响全国5%的现有建筑和60%的新增建筑,那么每年节约的能源将相当于全球航空运输停运四个月。

A separate report in October by the NRDC and Boston Consulting Group estimated that 'moderate' energy conservation, affecting 5% of China's existing buildings and 60% of new buildings, would have an environmental impact equivalent to halting global air traffic for four months.

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