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中国企业家环保不落人后

来源:天星 更新日期:2010-01-03 点击:


攀登玉珠峰的王石

中国的企业家和平民百姓已经开始越来越主动地应对全球变暖的问题。作为世界最大的温室气体排放国,这种新生趋势可能会对其限制自身气候影响的能力产生深远影响。

Chinese entrepreneurs and private citizens are starting to become more active in trying to address concerns over global warming, a nascent trend that could have significant long-term impact on the ability of the world's largest greenhouse-gas emitter to curb its effects on the climate.

在为数不多但不断扩充的一群民营企业经理人中,这种变化最为明显。他们正在调整经营方式,并帮助向公众进一步传播环保意识。

The shift is most pronounced among a small-but-growing group of private business executives, who are adjusting their business practices and helping to spread awareness more broadly among the public.

中国最大房地产开发商万科企业股份有限公司(China Vanke Co.)58岁的董事长王石表示,1998年喜欢上登山运动后,他开始对全球变暖产生担忧。他读过海明威(Ernest Hemingway)的小说《乞力马扎罗的雪》(The Snows of Kilimanjaro),于是在2002年前往坦桑尼亚攀登小说中所说的山峰。那次的见闻令他震惊。

Wang Shi, the 58-year-old chairman of China Vanke Co., the country's largest housing developer, said he became concerned about global warming through mountain climbing, a hobby he took up in 1998. He had read the Ernest Hemingway story 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro,' and in 2002 went to Tanzania to scale the mountain in the title. He was surprised at what he found.

他说,我一点雪也没看到;我做了更多研究后发现,山上的冰川也有可能在50年内完全消失。

'I didn't see any snow,' he says. 'I did more research, and discovered that within 50 years . . . its glaciers could be entirely gone as well.'

王石正在逐步地用可回收材料取代万科公寓楼内部使用的木材。万科在使用更多的太阳能和其他可再生能源,并采用部分借鉴日本、比普通中国建筑更少浪费的预制技术。

Mr. Wang is gradually replacing wood used in the interiors of Vanke's apartment buildings with recyclable materials. Vanke is using more solar and other renewable energy, and adopting prefabrication techniques, borrowed partly from Japan, that are less wasteful than standard Chinese construction.

王石正在深圳修建新的公司总部大楼,由美国建筑设计师霍尔(Steven Holl)设计。他要让大楼成为中国第一幢获得国际“能源与环境设计先锋奖”(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)最高级别白金奖的大楼。这个奖项是一个针对“绿色建筑”的评级体系。

Mr. Wang is building a new corporate headquarters in Shenzhen designed by Steven Holl, an American architect, that he aims to make the first building in China with a platinum ranking -- the highest available -- on the international Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system for 'green buildings.'

25年前创办了万科的王石说,中国是一个大国,它应当承担起一个大国的责任,因此中国的企业也需要承担自己的责任。

Mr. Wang is building a new corporate headquarters in Shenzhen designed by Steven Holl, an American architect, that he aims to make the first building in China with a platinum ranking -- the highest available -- on the international Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system for 'green buildings.'

2004年,王石和另外大约60位企业家组建了阿拉善SEE生态协会(Society of Entrepreneurs and Ecology,简称SEE),目的是促进应对气候变化和其他环境问题的意识和行动。目前这个协会有160名会员,每位会员年费人民币10万元(合14,620美元)。这意味着每年预算至少230万美元,还不包括房租全免等其他捐助。这对一家中国的非政府组织来讲,是一个庞大的数目。

In 2004, Vanke's Mr. Wang and about 60 other businessmen founded the Society of Entrepreneurs and Ecology to promote awareness and action on climate change and other environmental issues. It now has 160 members, each of whom pays 100,000 yuan ($14,620) in annual dues. That means an annual budget of at least $2.3 million, not including other contributions like free rent -- a hefty sum for a Chinese NGO.

SEE将这些资金用于中国的植树造林项目和教育,并参与支持全国150多个规模更小的环保组织。

SEE uses the funds for reforestation programs in China and educational efforts, and to help support more than 150 smaller environmental groups around the country.

12月8日哥本哈根气候峰会开幕之际,SEE联合其他几家组织,代表200名企业家发表了一份宣言,承诺降低他们公司的排放,并呼吁各国政府达成具有法律约束力的协议。

On Dec. 8, at the beginning of the Copenhagen climate summit, the group joined several other organizations representing 200 business members to issue a communique pledging to reduce their companies' emissions and calling on governments to reach a deal including binding legal benchmarks.

SEE秘书长杨鹏表示,环保意识的提高是中国发展的自然结果。

Yang Peng, SEE's secretary-general, says the growing green consciousness is a natural outgrowth of China's development.

他说,在过去,人们只求解决温饱问题,而现在很多人的生活条件改善了,他们对环境问题更为关心;低碳是一个新概念,但传播得非常快。

'In the past, people just wanted to get enough to eat. Now, many people live in nicer homes, and they're more concerned about the environment,' he says. 'Low carbon is a new idea, but it's spreading very fast.'

人们评估中国气候相关措施的时候,注意力主要集中在政府身上。这是情理之中的,因为北京除了制定政策以外,还直接在经济活动中发挥着重大作用。政府已经承诺降低碳强度,但拒绝承诺削减绝对排放量。其他国家一些官员和科学家曾批评中国的立场,认为它一定程度上造成哥本哈根峰会未能取得突破。中国方面表示,它在峰会上发挥了建设性作用,但只能接受一项公平对待发展中国家的协议。

Most of the focus in assessing China's climate-related practices has been on the government. That is logical, since Beijing, in addition to setting policy, plays an enormous direct role in the economy. The government has pledged to reduce China's carbon emissions relative to the size of its economy, but has refused to commit to outright emissions cuts. Some foreign officials and scientists have criticized China's stance and said it contributed to the failure of the Copenhagen summit to reach a breakthrough. China says it played a constructive role at the summit, but can only agree to a deal that treats developing nations fairly.

不过,作为世界人口最多的国家,民营企业和普通公民的参与或许也会成为中国气候影响的一个重要因素。

But the participation of private businesses and regular citizens in the world's most populous nation will also be a major factor in China's climate impact.

以前中国很少存在应对气候变化和其他环境问题的非政府活动,而这种活动在欧洲、日本和美国等更为发达的地区是很常见的。现在,一些经理人、教育家和其他人的活动越来越多,让气候专家深受鼓舞,虽然他们要取得重大影响还为时过早,而漠不关心、挥霍浪费的例子仍然是举不胜举。

Until recently, there was little of the sort of nongovernmental activity on climate change and other environmental issues that is common in more-developed places like Europe, Japan and the U.S. Now, climate experts take heart in the increasing activities of some executives, educators and others -- even if it is too early for them to have had major impact, and abundant examples remain of indifference and waste.

总部位于纽约的环境组织自然资源保护委员会(Natural Resources Defense Council)中国项目主任费雯丽(Barbara Finamore)说,我们已经开始看到中国人对气候变化的认识程度越来越高。她强调,学校和官方媒体采取了教育措施,让人们意识到气候问题,同时一些具有前瞻性的公司认识到这一问题之重要性并带头力劝政府加大努力。

'We are starting to see a growing level of awareness of climate change among people' in China, says Barbara Finamore, China program director for the Natural Resources Defense Council, a New York-based environmental organization. Ms. Finamore points to educational efforts in schools and by the state media to make people aware of climate issues, as well as 'forward-looking companies who recognize the importance of this issue and are taking a leading role in trying to encourage their government to do more.'

一些经理人正在改变他们的个人行为和公司行为。远大空调有限公司(Broad Air Conditioner Co.)总裁张跃早在1997年就成为首批购置个人飞机的中国企业家之一。大约五年前,他意识到了飞机一次1,900英里的航程会产生数量极巨的二氧化碳。自此以后,他严格限制飞机的使用,并经常乘坐民航班机。

Some executives are changing their personal, as well as corporate, behavior. Zhang Yue, chairman of Broad Air Conditioner Co., was one of China's first entrepreneurs to buy a private jet, back in 1997. About five years ago, he became aware of the huge volume of carbon dioxide produced by a single 1,900-mile trip on the jet. Since then, he has heavily restricted the jet's use, and he often takes commercial flights.

张跃还将减排列为公司的一个中心使命。远大是建筑用中央空调的重要生产商,主要生产不使用电能、而是使用天然气和废热等其他能源的制冷设备。远大称,其空调的二氧化碳排放量只有用电空调的20%。

Mr. Zhang has also made emissions reduction a central mission of his company. Broad is a major producer of giant air conditioners used in buildings, and it specializes in chillers that don't use electricity, instead relying on other energy sources like natural gas and waste heat. Broad says its air conditioners have only 20% the carbon-dioxide emissions of electric models.

张跃把自己视为中国应对气候变化的先行者,但他对全国的认识水平仍然感到悲观。

Still, Mr. Zhang, who considers himself a pioneer on climate-change issues in China, is pessimistic about the overall level of awareness in the country.

他说,公众对节能减排的理解仍然落后得可悲。他还表示,这个问题上政府应该进一步加强教育和宣传。

'Public understanding of energy conservation and emissions reduction is still woefully behind,' he says, adding that more education and publicity of the issue by the government is needed.

其他人已经看到了进步。皇明太阳能集团有限公司(Himin Solar Energy Group Co.) 是中国屋顶太阳能热水器的最大生产商,其董事长黄鸣表示,一些客户、特别是文化程度比较高的城市居民希望使用对环境更加有利的设备,这一点正在帮助提高皇明的销量。

Others see progress already. Huang Ming, the chairman of Himin Solar Energy Group Co., China's largest maker of rooftop solar water heaters, says the desire among some of his customers, particularly educated, urban residents, to use more-environmentally friendly devices is helping to boost Himin's sales.

如果万科这样的房地产公司改变它们的行为,影响可能会特别巨大,因为按建筑面积计算,中国拥有世界上最大的建筑市场。据一家企业团体发布的《中国绿色科技报告2009》(China Greentech Report 2009),建筑活动所产生的碳排放约占中国排放总量的六分之一。

If property companies like Vanke change their behavior, it could have an especially strong impact, since China has the largest building market in the world by floor space. Building operations create about one-sixth of China's total carbon emissions, according to the China Greentech Report 2009, published by a business consortium.

自然资源保护委员会和波士顿咨询公司(Boston Consulting Group)10月份发布的另一份报告估计,即使只对中国建筑“稍作节能改造”,影响全国5%的现有建筑和60%的新增建筑,那么每年节约的能源将相当于全球航空运输停运四个月。

A separate report in October by the NRDC and Boston Consulting Group estimated that 'moderate' energy conservation, affecting 5% of China's existing buildings and 60% of new buildings, would have an environmental impact equivalent to halting global air traffic for four months.

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