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美国宣布新的核武器政策

来源:天星 更新日期:2010-04-07 点击:

美国奥巴马政府于周二公布了一项核武器战略,对核武器的使用实施新的正式限制。这一战略同时招致了激进派和保守派的批评;激进派希望实施更大力度的限制,而保守派认为,此举改变了两党之间对于如何阻止敌人进攻已经维持数十年的共识。

The Obama administration on Tuesday unveiled a nuclear weapons strategy that establishes new, formal limits on their use, prompting criticism from both advocates of more ambitious curbs and conservatives who questioned the decision to alter decades of bipartisan consensus on how to deter enemy attacks.

这项战略体现于共72页的新一期《核态势评估报告》(Nuclear Posture Review)。美国总统奥巴马(Barack Obama)及其高级军事、外交幕僚认为,报告使美国朝着奥巴马最终废弃核武器的目标更近了一步。

President Barack Obama and his top military and diplomatic aides said the new 72-page Nuclear Posture Review moves the U.S. closer to Mr. Obama's goal of eventually eliminating nuclear weaponry.

但一些军控专家表示,报告过于温和,没有像他们预期的那样采取一种不首先使用核武器的政策,也没有排除对一些无核目标实施打击的可能,比如伊朗和朝鲜。

But some arms control specialists said the document was too timid, falling short of their expectations by failing to adopt a no first-use policy and keeping open the option of striking some non-nuclear targets, such as Iran and North Korea.

根据新政策,五角大楼方面可使用核武器来阻止的各种威胁,不再像过去那么多。新政策说,由于导弹防御系统和传统武器的进步,美国将不再以多数无核国家为目标,甚至包括那些威胁使用生化武器的国家。

The new policy narrows the range of threats the Pentagon will seek to deter with nuclear weapons. Because of advances in missile defense and conventional weapons, the new policy states that the U.S. no longer will target most non-nuclear states, even those that threaten use of chemical and biological weapons.

但报告没有宣布阻止核武器攻击是美国动用核武器的唯一目的。它说,由于存在一些没有遵守国际核条约义务的国家,美国保留把这些国家作为目标的权利。

The document stops short of declaring that deterring a nuclear attack is the 'sole purpose' of the U.S. arsenal, however. The policy states that because there are some countries that haven't lived up to their obligations under international nuclear treaties, the U.S. reserved the right to keep non-complying countries targeted.

国防部长盖茨(Robert Gates)表示,这种保留是专门针对伊朗和朝鲜的。它们都是《核不扩散条约》(Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty)的签署国,但曾被认为违反了条约,或者是曾经威胁退出条约(朝鲜)。

Defense Secretary Robert Gates said the carve-out was specifically aimed at Iran and North Korea, which are signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but have been cited for violations or, in the case of North Korea, have threatened to withdraw from the pact.

盖茨说,如果这里有对伊朗和朝鲜发出的信息的话,那就是,如果你们要成为一个扩散者,那么在我们怎样对付你们的问题上,各种选项都是摆在台面上的。

'If there is a message for Iran and North Korea here, it is that…if you're going to be a proliferator, then all options are on the table in terms of how we deal with you,' Mr. Gates said.

几位军控专家认为,虽然有变化,但奥巴马并没有更进一步,让他们感到失望。

Despite the changes, several arms-control advocates said they were disappointed Mr. Obama didn't go further.

美国科学家联合会(Federation of American Scientists)核信息项目负责人克里斯滕森(Hans Kristensen)表示,报告比我预计的要谨慎很多。他指出,报告中没有提出美国核力量的任何具体裁减计划,虽然即将同俄罗斯方面签署的军控协议对此有所承诺。

'It's a much more cautious document than I expected,' said Hans Kristensen, director of the nuclear information project at the Federation of American Scientists, noting that there are no specific cuts in the U.S. nuclear force mentioned in the document, despite commitments made in a soon-to-be-signed arms-control agreement with Moscow.

但也不是所有主张军控的人都失望。犁头基金会(Ploughshares Fund)负责人、知名裁军倡导者奇林乔内(Joseph Cirincione)说,新政策是一份“妥协文件”,相比布什政府时期是一个重大变化。布什政府曾试图扩大核武器的使用范围。

Not all arms-control advocates were disappointed, however. Joseph Cirincione, head of the Ploughshares Fund and a leading advocate for disarmament, said that while the new policy was a 'compromise document,' it was a major shift from the Bush administration, which sought to widen the uses of nuclear weapons.

奇林乔内周二在白宫与高级政府官员谈及新政策时说,这显示了一种新的、走中间道路的核武器共识,它建立的共识是,核武器更多地是一种负债而不是一种资产。

'This crystallizes the new, centrist consensus on nuclear weapons,' said Mr. Cirincione, who spoke with senior administration officials about the policy at the White House on Tuesday. 'It establishes the consensus that nuclear weapons are more of a liability than an asset.'

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