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2012年十大热门职业

来源:天星 更新日期:2012-01-12 点击:


2012年十大热门职业

Strange but true: Despite the fact that unemployment is stuck at around 9%, which translates to about 15 million Americans out of work, nearly 3 million job openings in the U.S. are going unfilled, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Why? The biggest reason is a mismatch between the qualifications employers are looking for and the skills job hunters have.

尽管美国的失业率依然停留在9%左右,这意味着大约1,500万美国人没有工作,但美国劳动统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据显示,目前还有近300万个职位依然虚席以待。这种现象虽然很奇怪,但却是事实。为什么会出现这种现象?最大的原因是,雇主寻求的资质与求职者具备的技能之间未能有效对接。

So which skills are most in demand? Here are 10 of the hottest:

那么,就业市场最需要哪些技能?以下是最热门的10大职业:

1. Information technology. When career site Indeed.com recently analyzed millions of job postings on its web site, researchers found that the fastest-growing category of keywords — including HTML5, Android, mobile app, and social media — were in IT, and a new survey by tech job site Dice.com bears that out: About 65% of hiring managers said they hope to add tech staff in the first half of 2012. Roughly a quarter of those (27%) said they want to expand their IT headcount by more than 20%.

1.信息技术。招聘网站Indeed.com最近对发布于该网站上的数百万个职位信息进行了分析。研究人员发现,增速最快的关键词(包括 HTML5、Android、移动应用和社交媒体等)都属于信息技术领域。技术类招聘网站Dice.com所做的一项最新调查也证实了上述发现:大约 65%的招聘经理表示,他们希望在2012年上半年增加技术员工。约有四分之一 (27%) 的招聘经理声称,他们打算把信息技术团队的人数扩充20%以上。

Openings for software developers who specialize in applications will rise by more than one-third (34%) by 2018, says Best Jobs for the 21st Century, a new book by job market analyst Laurence Shatkin, while companies will hire 20% more computer systems analysts. Rising pay in these fields reflects the surge in demand: The Bureau of Labor Statistics says that developers of systems software, for instance, earn an average of $94,180 per year.

就业市场分析师劳伦斯·沙特金在其新著《21世纪最好的工作》(Best Jobs for the 21st Century)中说,到2018年,应用软件开发人员的空缺职位将增长三分之一以上(34%),公司雇用的计算机系统分析师人数也将增长20%。这些领域不断上涨的薪酬反映出需求激增的趋势:劳工统计局称,系统软件开发人员的平均年薪为94,180美元。

2. Health care professionals. Partly due to the aging of the U.S. population, health care has been hot for a while now, and the trend shows no sign of slowing. Shatkin's research says the U.S. will need 103,900 more registered nurses every year (average salary: $64,690) well into the next decade, along with 7,860 new physical therapists per annum (average pay: $76,310). Demand for dental hygienists is up too, with a projected 36.1% growth in job openings between now and 2018 (average pay: $68,250).

2.医疗保健专业人员。受美国人口老龄化等因素的影响,医疗保健早已成为就业的热门领域,这一趋势目前依然没有放缓的迹象。沙特金的研究显示,直至下个10年后期,美国每年都需要增加103,900名注册护士(平均年薪:64,690美元),以及 7,860名理疗师(平均年薪:76,310美元)。对牙科保健师的需求也在上升——从现在到2018年,牙科保健师的空缺职位预计将增长36.1%(平均年薪:68,250美元)。

3. Health care management and support staff. Don't have the training or experience to work directly with patients? No worries. "People often overlook the fact that businesspeople run health care companies," says Justin Hirsch, president of recruiting firm JobPlex. "With all the change happening in the system now, there is churn as well as growth. We're constantly seeing new openings in general management, finance, marketing, human resources, you name it."

3.医疗保健管理和支持人员。如果没有接受过培训或不具备相关经验,无法从事直接跟病人打交道的工作,怎么办?不必担心。“生意人同样可以经营医疗保健服务,但人们却经常忽略了这个事实,”猎头机构JobPlex公司的总裁贾斯汀•赫希说。“医疗体系日新月异,但有所失亦有所得。一般管理、财务、营销、人力资源等领域正不断涌现出新的就业机会。”

4. Engineers. Note to college students who want their pick of job offers when they graduate: Consider majoring in engineering. A whopping 88% of employers in a new poll by the Society for Human Resource Management bemoaned the difficulty of finding enough engineers to hire. Civil engineers are in demand too: Shatkin's analysis of BLS data shows a 24.3% spike ahead in jobs for people who design roads, bridges, and other infrastructure projects (average annual pay: $77,560).

4.工程师。希望毕业时有大把工作机会可以挑选的大学生请注意:考虑一下主修工程专业。人力资源管理协会(Society for Human Resource Management)最新的一次民意调查显示,有高达88%的雇主抱怨称,很难招聘到足够多的工程师。对于土木工程师的需求也十分旺盛。沙特金在分析劳工统计局的数据时发现,对于道路、桥梁和其他基础设施项目设计人员的需求量激增了24.3%(平均年薪:77,560美元)。

5. Industrial skills. Think U.S. manufacturing is moribund? Think again. More than two-thirds (68%) of employers in the SHRM survey pointed to a shortage of qualified new hires to replace people retiring from the skilled trades: electricians, carpenters, welders. Moreover, says Justin Hirsch, "We're seeing an increase in industrial hiring in logistics, supply-chain management, and plant management." As more companies go global, demand for expertise in logistics — the art and science of moving stuff efficiently from one place to another — will continue to heat up.

5.技术工人。美国制造业正垂死挣扎?不见得吧。在人力资源管理协会所做的调查中,超过三分之二(68%)的雇主指出,市场上合格的新员工非常短缺,不足以取代即将退休的熟练技术工:电工、木工和焊工。此外,贾斯汀·赫希说:“许多工业类公司正在增加物流、供应链管理和车间管理等职位的招工人数。”随着越来越多的公司走向国际化,对物流人才(即把货物从一个地方有效地搬运至另一个地方的艺术和科学)的需求也将持续升温。

6. Life sciences and biotech. Medical innovators ranging in size from Big Pharma down to biotech startups are on a hiring binge: Shatkin sees a 40% jump in job openings for research scientists between now and 2018 (average salary: $76,700). As with health care companies in general, these employers will also need managers and support staff (see No. 3).

6.生命科学和生物技术。从大型制药公司到生物技术类初创企业,大大小小的医疗创新者正在大举招兵买马。沙特金发现,从现在到2018年,科研人员的职位缺口将跃升40%(平均年薪:76,700美元)。而一般的医疗保健类公司也需要大量的管理人员和支持人员(见第三类)。

7. Salespeople. Selling has historically been the closest thing there is to a recession-proof career, and this economic downturn is no exception. Since they're the ones bringing the dough in the door, salespeople are often the first to be hired and last to get laid off. Almost three-quarters (72%) of employers in the SHRM survey said they can't get enough salespeople now.

7.销售员。销售历来都是受经济衰退影响最小的职业,这一轮衰退期也不例外。为企业带来真金白银的是销售人员,所以他们往往是“第一个上岗,最后一个下岗”的员工群体。在人力资源管理协会所做的调查中,大约三分之二(72%)的雇主称,现在招不到足够的销售人员。

8. Accounting and finance. Demand for accountants and finance mavens (particularly forensic accountants and compliance specialists) has been climbing steadily for the past several years, and U.S. colleges are still not turning out enough grads in these fields to fill the available openings. The SHRM survey found that more than half (54%) of employers would hire more accountants and finance experts if they could find them.

8.会计和财务人员。过去几年来,对会计和财务专家(特别是法务会计师和财务法规专家)的需求一直在稳步上升,具有此类专业背景的美国大学生,现在仍无法满足目前的职位缺口。人力资源管理协会的调查发现,超过一半(54%)的雇主表示,只要能够找到合格的人才,他们就会扩大会计师和财务专家的招聘规模。

9. Discount retailers. "Not to mention any specific company names -- everyone knows who they are, anyway — but the big national discount store companies have flourished during this recession," notes Justin Hirsch. "And most of them are hiring managers as well as in-store personnel."

9.折扣店零售员。“不必提具体公司的名称,反正大家都知道。在此轮衰退期间,大型连锁折扣店的生意非常火爆。大多数公司正在招聘经理和其他店内工作人员,”贾斯汀·赫希指出。

10. Private equity firms. Recruiters report that private equity firms are actively seeking management talent for their portfolio companies "across all industries and all functional areas," says Hirsch. "They're poaching already-employed, seasoned managers from big companies — people who can step into either a turnaround situation or a pre-IPO company and make it work. These are challenging jobs, and could be a real feather in a manager's cap if he or she can bring it off successfully."

10.私募股权。招聘经理报告称,私募股权公司正在积极地为它们投资的公司物色管理精英。赫希说,这些岗位涉及“所有行业,所有职能领域”。“它们正在从各大公司网罗身经百战的资深经理人,也就是那些有能力扭转乾坤,或者帮助一家即将首次公开招股的公司做好各项准备的人。这些工作极具挑战性,如果经理人能够大功告成,那将为其职业生涯增添浓墨重彩的一笔。”

Do unemployed executives have a shot? "With the right network, yes," Hirsch says. "It's about having great business acumen, especially a knack for coping with ambiguity, and being known for that. It helps to have the right connections."

失业的高管有机会吗?“如果掌握了靠谱的人脉,那就有机会,”赫希说。“这种工作需要卓尔不群的商业触觉,特别是要有应对不确定性的技巧,还要有一定的知名度。拥有恰当的人脉关系自然也有助益。”

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